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Murder Weapon Is Beside Us-The Exhaust

Clean air is the basis for the survival of human beings. An adult breaths approximately 15 cubic meters of air per day. If people inhale the heavily polluted air, it would be harmful to health. More people will suffer from respiratory problems such as cough, asthma, bronchitis, and other breathing difficulties.

Toxic air pollutants include benzene, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen compounds, sulfur compounds as well as heavy metals arsenic, cadmium, beryllium, exhaust and soot, etc.; and these pollutants together constitute the suspended particles with a very small volume; PM2.5 is only about 1/28 of the diameter of a hair or 1/35 of the sand. Because the particles are very tiny, it can penetrate the alveoli directly into the blood vessels in the body, move with the blood circulation, and endanger human health.

Suspended particles may be attached with toxic heavy metals and acidic oxides which are hundreds, thousands, or even ten-thoudsands times higher compared with the soil; furthermore, they be floating in the air for tens of days. The hazardous substances attached on the particles may inhaled in to the lung, enter the blood vessels through the alveoli, and directly endanger human health. "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease" (COPD) is a kind of airflow obstruction disease due to the "chronic bronchitis" or "emphysema"; its prominent characteristic is the long-term cough and breathing difficulties. In recent years, "chronic obstructive pulmonary disease "(COPD) has been the leading cause of death of people. In addition to smoking, the air pollution is the main factors of the causes of the disease.

Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

[PM2.5] Fine Particulate Matters is referred to as the suspended particles flowing in the air which are smaller than 2.5 μm.
[PM 10] are the suspended particles which are smaller than 10 μm.

External Costs due to Air Pollution

The air pollutants may cause different diseases associate with the blood and the heart, for example, it may destroy the brain blood vessels to increase the chance of stroke by 54%. According to studies, as the concentration of fine particlate matters increases by 10 micrograms per cubic meter, it may increase the lung cancer mortality by 8% and the cardiopulmonary disease mortality by 6%; so the total mortality may be increased by 4%.

Research results indicate that if the mother is exposed to polluted air, in average 9.1% of newborn babieshave body weights lower than normal, and 7.4% of the newborn babies has body functions which are not fully developed. Pollutants in the air can enter the mother's blood from the lungs into the baby's blood circulation system through the placenta and umbilical cord which amy seriously affect the fetal growth and development of the baby, and even cause DNA damage, increase the probabilisy of abortion and the risks of infant defect or sudden death. The fact that the parents are even more worried about is that the polluted air may degrade the children's IQ by 4-5 degrees which may affect their life.

The reserach study conducted by the School of Public Health of Peking University reported that in 2010, there are 7770 excess deaths due to the PM2.5 pollution in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Xi'an in 2010 which cause the economic losee of 6.17 billion RMBs. In China, the number of deaths due to air pollution reaches 35.8 persons per year. According to Hong Kong Hedley Environmental Index, the number of the premature deaths due to air pollution in 2012 is 3,096 persons persons , direct pecuniary loss 3.95 billion Hong Kong dollars, 151,300 hospital bed days, the number of doctors and 7,167,000; Hong Kong's air pollution mortality per 100,000 43 people have died from air pollution.

The research conducted by Hong Kong University indecates that as the visibility decreases by 6.5 km, the mortality rate will increase by 1.13%, which in turn induce cardiovascular and respiratory diseases so that he motality would be increased by 1.31% and 1.92%, respectively. Accordingly, the projected annual average of 1,200 deaths due to air pollution, that is, a daily average of nearly 3.3 people are killed. The number of deaths caused by cardiovascular diseases due to air pollution is 385 persons per year. As for the respiratory system diseases, the average annual number of deaths due to air pollution is 410 persons per year.

In Taiwan, according to the data issued by EPA, a long-term exposure to fine particulate matters may cause the effects including increased mortality, increased cardiovascular disease, increased cerebrovascular disease, reduced lung function, and even the generation of lung cancer and so on. The Research Center for Environmental Changes of Academia Sinica pointed out that in Taipei metropolitan area, the commuters may be exposed to PM2.5 with an average concentration of 121.3 micrograms per cubic meter, which is 3 - 4 times higher then the concentration measured by the EPA's measurement stations, so the effects on people's health should not be overlooked.